The marine mammal, a white whale named NOC, copied the sound of people so well that at first, researchers thought they were hearing humans conversing in the distance. A diver who worked with NOC once even left the water, wondering, "Who told me to get out?" The voice turned out to be that of NOC. "They are highly vocal animals," lead author Sam Ridgway of the National Marine Mammal Foundation told Discovery News, adding that NOC was not Kid's Nike NFL Kansas City Chiefs #29 Eric Berry White Jersey the first to copy human speech. "A major instance occurred at Vancouver Aquarium in 1979," he said. "In that case, people thought the whale uttered his name ("Lagosi") and other sounds that were like garbled German or Russian. Our whale was the second example, however, ours was the first solid demonstration using acoustic analysis including 'voice print' simultaneously with human speech." The study, described in the latest issue of Current Biology, revealed an amplitude rhythm in NOC's vocalizations that was comparable to human speech. Fundamental frequencies in the whale's vocalizations were also in the same range of human speech and were several octaves lower than the whale's usual sounds. Ridgway said NOC spent long periods in close contact with humans, listening to them from both above and below the surface. "The whale often heard divers talking over underwater communication equipment," he continued. "I think that vocal animals like feedback. Perhaps this figured in his motivation." NOC also went to a lot of trouble to make the sounds. The researchers explain that the whale had to vary the pressure in his nasal tract while making other muscular adjustments and inflating the vestibular sac in his blowhole. BLOG: Saving Right Whales? There's an App for That NOC, who unfortunately passed away after 30 years at the National Marine Mammal Foundation, stopped making the human speech-like sounds after the age of 3 or 4 years old, Ridgway said. At the time, Ridgway presented the news at a scientific conference, but the work was not funded and became lost in the research shuffle until more recently, when colleagues encouraged him to publish the data. There are a few possibilities as to why NOC stopped his human vocal mimicry while still a youngster. The first is that hormonal changes related to sexual maturity may diminish a whale's urges to mimic. Another possible reason is that the novelty might have simply worn off for NOC. Ridgway explained that "we trained the whale to interact with us acoustically for hearing test and for reaction time determinations, among other things. For this new work, the whale was responding to us vocally. These responses may have limited his interest in the human speech-like sounds." William Schevill, now deceased, of Harvard University's Museum of Comparative Zoology, was the first to document spontaneous human voice mimicry in a white whale. Schevill and colleague Barbara Lawrence noted that "occasionally the calls would suggest a crowd of children shouting in the distance." http://www.discountglasses-hot.com/
The percentage of Protestant adults in redskins home jersey the U.S. has reached a low of 48 percent, the first time that Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life has reported with certainty that the number has fallen below 50 percent. The drop has long been anticipated and comes at a time when no Protestants are on the U.S. Supreme Court and the Republicans have their first presidential ticket with no Protestant nominees. Among the reasons for the change are the growth in nondenominational Christians who can no longer be categorized as Protestant, and a spike in the number of American adults who say they have no religion. The Pew study, released Tuesday, found that about 20 percent of Americans say they have no religious affiliation, an increase from 15 percent in the last five years. Scholars have long debated whether people who say they no longer belong to a religious group should be considered secular. While the category as defined by Pew researchers includes atheists, it also encompasses majorities of people who say they believe in God, and a notable minority who pray daily or consider themselves "spiritual" but not "religious." Still, Pew found overall that most of the unaffiliated aren't actively seeking another religious home, indicating that their ties with organized religion are permanently broken. Growth among those with no religion has been a major preoccupation of American faith leaders who worry that the United States, a highly religious country, would go the way of Western Europe, where church attendance has plummeted. Pope Benedict XVI has partly dedicated his pontificate to combating secularism in the West. This week in Rome, he is convening a three-week synod, or assembly, of bishops from around the world aimed at bringing back Roman Catholics who have left the church. The trend also has political implications. American voters who describe themselves as having no religion vote overwhelmingly for Democrats. Pew found Americans with no religion support abortion rights and gay marriage at a much higher-rate than the U.S. public at large. These "nones" are an increasing segment of voters who are registered as Democrats or lean toward the party, growing from 17 percent to 24 percent over the last five years. The religiously unaffiliated are becoming as important a constituency to Democrats as evangelicals are to Republicans, Pew said. The Pew analysis, conducted with PBS' "Religion & Ethics Newsweekly," is based on several surveys, including a poll of nearly 3,000 adults conducted June 28-July 9, 2012. The finding on the Protestant majority is based on responses from a larger group of gates 311 more than 17,000 people and has a margin of error of plus or minus 0.9 percentage points, Pew researchers said. Pew said it had also previously calculated a drop slightly below 50 percent among U.S. Protestants, but those findings had fallen within the margin of error; the General Social Survey, which is conducted by the University of Chicago's National Opinion Research Center, reported for 2010 that the percentage of U.S. Protestants was around 46.7 percent. Researchers have been struggling for decades to find a definitive reason for the steady rise in those with no religion.' The spread of secularism in Western Europe was often viewed as a byproduct of growing wealth in the region. Yet among industrialized nations, the United States stood out for its deep religiosity in the face of increasing wealth. Now, religion scholars say the decreased religiosity in the United States could reflect a change in how Americans describe their religious lives. In 2007, 60 percent of people who said they seldom or never attend religious services still identified themselves as part of a particular religious tradition. In 2012, that statistic fell to 50 percent, according to seattle seahawks jerseys the Pew report. "Part of what's going on here is that the stigma associated with not being part of any religious community has declined," said John Green, a specialist in religion and politics at the University of Akron, who advised Pew on the survey. "In some parts of the country, there is still a stigma. But overall, it's not the way it used to be."
When Republican presidential oakley sunglasses for men hopeful Mitt Romney ended months of speculation and rumor by choosing U.S. Rep Paul Ryan of Wisconsin to fill out the ticket, he got more than just a vice presidential candidate. He hitched his wagon to a Tea Party star, a fiscal-policy super-wonk and author of a budget proposal that Democrats hold up as an example of the economic evils the GOP would visit on America if they were in charge. While many running mates fade into irrelevance and obscurity either during the election or soon thereafter, Paul Ryan may turn out to be a political horse of a different color. He's no shrinking violet, for starters, and can masterfully and forcefully present his free-market, fiscal-policy beliefs. As such, he seems to be on the Romney ticket for a reason: to bring serious economic firepower to the GOP presidential ticket and, if Romney is elected president, possibly play a prominent role in shaping U.S. economic policy. Here's a look at some of the ways Ryan's budget proposals contrast with President Obama's, using figures from The Wall Street Journal cheap ray ban sunglasses for women: 1. Individual income taxes: Ryan's plan would do away with the arcane tax code we've all come to know and loathe, replacing it with two simple rates: 10% and 25%. To compensate for the revenue that would cost, he would limit and eliminate tax credits and tax deductions. This, as he put it, would help clear out the "burdensome tangle of loopholes that distort economic activity." Obama's plan calls for raising the top-tier individual tax rate from 36% to 39.6%, and for limiting deductions for the wealthy. 2. Corporate income taxes: Ryan's plan calls for corporate taxes to be lowered to 25%; they're now 35%, the highest in the world -- before the tax breaks begin. Obama's plan calls for lowering them to 28%, but eliminating the tax breaks and loopholes many businesses now take advantage of. Ryan's plan would also make it easier for U.S. multinationals to reduce their tax liability on foreign profits. Currently, many corporations, like Microsoft (MSFT) and Apple (AAPL), keep money that's made overseas in foreign bank accounts in order to defer paying U.S. tax. Ryan has previously proposed replacing the corporate income tax entirely with an 8.5% business consumption tax, but in more recent budget proposals, he took out that provision. 3. Medicare: Medicare is the government-run health-care system for those age 65 and over. Ryan's plan calls for the gradual raising of the eligibility age to 67 and giving those younger than 55 the chance to opt out of Medicare in exchange for participation in a federally supervised private voucher system. Obama would keep the current system essentially unchanged, but raise premiums or copays for the wealthy. Ryan's plan calls for no changes for anyone currently over the age of 55. 4. Medicaid: Medicaid is government-run health oakley radar women care for the poor and other groups. Ryan's plan calls for it to be turned into a block-grant program, essentially letting each state administer the federal dollars as they see fit, which Ryan argues will allow for substantial savings in appropriations for the program. Obama's plan would keep Medicaid pretty much as is, as his hoped-for expansion was struck down in the recent Supreme Court ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, aka Obamacare. The ruling gives states flexibility in how much coverage they offer their residents, and whom they cover. 5. Defense spending: Ryan's plan calls for reversing the president's planned defense cuts and would appropriate $554 billion for defense in fiscal 2013. Ryan, like most Republicans, is hawkish on defense spending. 6. Deficit: The budget deficit -- the difference between what the federal government currently spends and what it raises in tax revenue -- currently stands at about 7.8% of gross domestic product, or GDP. Ryan's plan calls for the federal deficit to be reduced oakley fuel cell to 4% of GDP by 2014 and 0.9% by 2017. Obama's plan is slightly less aggressive, and calls for a reduction to 3.9% of GDP by 2014 and 3% by 2017. Picking Ryan as a running mate is a bold move on Romney's part, so long as he doesn't do what so many other presidential candidates have done and immediately shove his running mate to the sidelines, or completely ignore him if they win the election. Let's hope his choice will help elevate the presidential debate from a mud-slinging match to a real debate on issues of import to voters and the country. http://www.sunglassesshop-buy.com/
The drought center's new report doesn't discount rayban take into account the bit of rain the Chicago area received this week — about 0.55 inch fell at O'Hare International Airport on Tuesday and Wednesday — but it would take 3 inches or more to have made any significant improvement, said drought center climatologist Brian Fuchs. "In a lot of places in Illinois cheap discount oakley sunglasses, this is the worst they remember," said Emerson Nafziger, a professor of crop sciences at the University of Illinois. About 66 percent of the state's corn crop is in poor to very poor condition, according to a report his week from the Illinois Department of Agriculture. In states that are major producers of corn nationwide, about 45 percent of the corn is poor or worse, though the total produced this year won't be known until after September, when harvesting begins, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture. During the same time last year, only 14 percent of corn crops nationwide were considered poor. "We're sitting here, watching the sky; it looks like it could rain," Nafziger said in by telephone from near Vandalia. "People are kind of pessimistic." Nationally, almost 40 percent of agricultural land is oakley pro m experiencing at least a severe drought, which makes the 2012 drought more extensive than any other since the 1950s, according to the USDA. Illinois Climatologist Jim Angel said July's heat and lack of rain could make this drought its worst on record, especially because all across the state, farmers' soil is showing signs of having very little moisture, something essential for plant health ray ban outlet online. "In a normal season we rely on soil moisture to get you through August, but we don't have that," Angel said. Less corn production usually means higher food prices, according oakley sunglasses cheap to the USDA, though the full effect of a sparse corn harvest wouldn't move through to grocery stores until at least 10 months from now. But grocery shoppers could see the price of chicken or eggs and other meats increase sooner than that, since farmers often scale back on their livestock when the cost of corn feed is high, which can happen when corn production is low, Nafziger said. Still, some say there's room for optimism. Angel said long-term forecasts wholesale oakley sunglasses show an increased chance of above-normal precipitation and more normal temperatures over the next two weeks. The heat and dry weather looks to be shifting to the west, maybe making the Midwest a little wetter and milder, Angel said.
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Evacuation orders issued a day earlier oakley photochromic for a quarter of a million people were lifted in most areas Sunday as the rains subsided, allowing many people to return home. But thousands remained cut off by landslides or fallen trees that blocked roads in mountainous areas. More than 3,000 people were left stranded in Yame, in Fukuoka Prefecture in southwestern Japan, where roads were cut off to seven districts, the Kyodo news agency reported, citing local authorities. The Japanese military airlifted food by helicopters Discount Oakley womens sunglasses 865 discount sale for men and women LUYU0364 to stranded districts. Local officials raised the death toll from the torrential rains in the northern parts of the Kyushu region to 26 and six people remain missing in Kumamoto, Oita and Fukuoka prefectures, Kyodo reported. Most of the victims were in their 70s and 80s. In Yame, a 70-year-old man died after being caught in a landslide, while another man died in Yanagawa, also in Fukuoka, after being retrieved from a cheap oakley sunglasses for sale discount oakley-169 car at an irrigation channel floodgate, according to local authorities, Kyodo reported. In Kyoto Prefecture, in western Japan, heavy rainfall of up to 3.5 inches (90 millimeters) per hour flooded around 100 houses each in Kameoka and Kyoto oakley sunglasses new, Japan's old capital, Kyodo reported. The Japan Meteorological Agency said that the worst was over, but predicted more rain and thunderstorms in some areas through Monday. http://www.sunglassesshop-buy.com/
By January 2010, however, nearly all infrared light from the dusty disk had vanished. “We had never seen anything like this before,” says astronomer Carl Melis of the University of California, San Diego. “We were all scratching our heads and wondering oakley sunglasses clearance what the hell did we do wrong?” But subsequent observations with both infrared satellites and ground-based telescopes confirmed the surprising discovery, he says: “The disk was gone.” Melis and his colleagues report the mystery online today in Nature — but they don’t know what caused it. “It’s very bizarre,” he says. “Nothing like this was ever predicted.” He says there’s no way something could eclipse the infrared-emitting disk for more than 2 years, because such an object would be immense. Furthermore, the star itself didn’t fade. Melis speculates that an earlier collision between two objects — perhaps two boulders, two asteroids, or even two planets — orbiting the star produced the dust grains that emitted the infrared light. Then either the star’s light blew the dust out of the planetary system or the dust plunged into the star. “It’s a really interesting mystery,” says astronomer Scott Kenyon of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts, who was not affiliated with the discovery team. “The observations certainly seem correct. It’s sort of amazing to have the dust in one of these disks go away so quickly. It’s hard to know exactly what happened.” “This is a whole new insight into the violent processes Mac foundation like the ones that formed the moon and that must be going on where terrestrial planets are forming and first evolving in other planetary systems,” adds astronomer George Rieke of the University of Arizona in Tucson. Rieke says the discovery shows what happens after members of a nascent planetary system collide. His team has recently found milder infrared dimming in two somewhat older stars, indicating that similar events may be occurring there. The discovery may offer clues to the violence that surrounded the formation of Earth. In particular, Earth is the only known terrestrial planet with a large moon, whose tides may have helped life advance by pushing it from sea to land; but no one knows how many Earthlike planets sport large satellites. The moon arose when a Mars-sized object hit our planet, a collision that presumably spewed lots of dust into space. The new observations suggest this dust could have disappeared fast. However, with only one dust-vanishing event ever seen, Melis doesn’t know how common the phenomenon is. So his team plans to monitor not only this star but also others like it. “We have to wait and see if we ever catch another one,” he says.
The singer is seeking damages against ray ban sunglasses prices New York-based Berdon LLP and two of its staff, who have left the firm. She blames them for poor book-keeping, a failure to recommend she cut back on expenses when her tour in 2009 was losing money and an ongoing audit by the US tax authority. The case was filed under Rihanna's real name Robyn Fenty at a New York court. The singer, who headlined Radio 1's Hackney Weekend last month, is claiming her former accountancy firm earned large commissions from concert tours that resulted in her losing millions of dollars. The lawsuit says Berdon LLP took 22% of oakey the Last Girl on Earth tour's total revenues while paying Rihanna 6%. Rihanna's lawyers also blame the accounting company for an ongoing Internal Revenue Service (IRS) audit of her tax returns and for not making sure she was being paid song royalties properly. The lawsuit claims that since the 24-year-old fired the accountancy firm, her earnings have increased. The singer says she hired Berdon LLP in 2005 when she was a 16-year-old from Barbados launching her career. Ron Storch, a partner at Berdon LLP mac makeup pictures, said the company could not comment on the court case.
In an interview with Turkey's Cumhuriyet rayban sunglasses newspaper, he argues that the plane was flying in an area previously used by Israel's air force. The plane went down in the Mediterranean last month and the two pilots have not been found. The incident has heightened tensions between the two countries. Last week, Turkish PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan condemned Syria's action and described the neighbouring country as a "clear and present threat sunglasses 2012". Turkey reinforced border areas with rocket-launchers and anti-aircraft guns. On Sunday, Turkey said it had scrambled six F-16 fighter jets when Syrian helicopters had approached the border. "We will not allow (the shooting down) to turn into open combat between the two countries," President Assad is quoted as saying. Cumhuriyet, which published the interview on Tuesday, does not indicate when it took place but shows a picture of Mr Assad standing beside its Ankara bureau chief Utku Cakirozer. In other developments, Turkish media reported late on Monday that cheap makeup online another 85 Syrian soldiers, including 14 senior officers, had defected across the Turkish border. It is one of the biggest groups of army defections since the March 2011 uprising in Syria began. Syria has been accused of practising a widespread policy of state-sanctioned torture, in a Human Rights Watch report . The group says it has identified at least 27 detention centres across Syria. UN human rights chief Navi Pillay has said that both Syrian government forces and the opposition have been involved in operations that harmed civilians pigment eyeshadow. She has appealed for further militarisation of the conflict to be avoided at all costs.
Injuries to Austin Jackson and Andy Dirks helped give Berry a shot in the big leagues, and the gregarious outfielder has made discount ray ban sunglasses the most of it so far, hitting .316 in 33 games. It's not clear how much he'll play when the Tigers return to full strength, but so far Berry has been a breath of fresh air, even adding some speed (12 steals without being caught) to a lineup lacking it. Berry is one of a handful of players who have come from way off the radar to contribute to playoff contenders. Here are a few more: ___ DANIEL NAVA, OF, RED SOX Unlike teammate Will Middlebrooks, Nava wasn't considered a big prospect when he entered the season as a 29-year-old player with only 161 major league at-bats to his credit. But he's hitting .313 with the Red Sox since a May callup, helping Boston withstand injuries to Carl Crawford and Jacoby Ellsbury. ___ JOSE QUINTANA, LHP, WHITE SOX This 23-year-old Colombian made cheap sunglasses oakley his major league debut under bizarre circumstances on May 7 after being called up straight from Double-A as Chicago's 26th-man exemption for a doubleheader. He pitched 5 2-3 scoreless innings in relief that day, and the White Sox brought him back from the minors later that month. In eight appearances, including six starts, Quintana has posted a 1.25 ERA. He's thrown eight scoreless innings in each of his last two starts. ___ MICHAEL FIERS, RHP, and MARTIN MALDONADO, C, BREWERS Fiers and Maldonado formed a unique battery for Milwaukee on May 29 — each was making his first major league start. Fiers is now 2-2 with a 2.70 ERA, and Maldonado has hit five homers in only 78 at-bats, helping George Kottaras hold down the fort behind the plate in Jonathan Lucroy's absence. ___ ROBBIE ROSS, LHP, RANGERS The Texas bullpen would be loaded even without Ross, but this 23-year-old pitcher has distinguished himself already, going 6-0 with a 1.08 ERA in 41 2-3 innings. A starter in the minors, Ross has already made eight relief appearances of at least two innings, including a four-inning stint at San Francisco on June 10 in which he allowed no runs and only one hit mac make up. ___ ERNESTO FRIERI, RHP, ANGELS Frieri didn't come totally out of nowhere. He made his debut with the Padres at the end of the 2009 season and quietly racked up strikeouts in San Diego for a couple years before he was traded to the Los Angeles Angels on May 3 for two minor leaguers. All he's done since is throw 23 1-3 scoreless innings for the Angels, converting all 10 of his save chances and allowing only six hits in that span. His control could become a problem, but Frieri has already helped his new team recover from a slow start. ___ JOE KELLY, RHP, CARDINALS Kelly posted a 5.01 ERA in 11 Double-A starts last year, so it may be cheap makeup cases a stretch to expect too much of an impact in the majors in 2012. But the Cardinals needed rotation help with Chris Carpenter and now Jaime Garcia recovering from injuries. Kelly has managed to scatter hits in four starts for St. Louis, posting a 3.38 ERA in the big leagues.
Jinling Evening the Nanjing civilization Weekly Report "on the bus loudly noise pollution" after reading the article, I have many Mac Concealer ideas to talk about. Britain recently introduced a new initiative, requiring young people aged 11-15 to the signing of the Declaration of "civilized", the commitment to comply with the order to use public transport, active seat, may not make much noise in the car. I think this country on their children's education is really in place, very seriously. The country attaches great importance to the education of 400,000 kids moral civilization, so that they know how to convenient seat, do not eat inside Wholesale Mac Makeup Cover Pencil Online Hot Sale. Back to take a look at our home on the bus what will happen? Influence others have of talking loudly; then, playing phone sounds great, very high impact others of; bus in the morning to eat breakfast of even refuse to eat breakfast free to throw in the car ; more unconsciously sneezing in front of other passengers face it; he was suffering from a cold or other diseases, do not wear masks of - in short, the phenomenon of the bus pollution is very serious indeed, to cause us attention Oakley sunglasses 2012. The bus is a public place, is a mobile society, the interior of a small bus every day in staged scenes of vivid drama. To reflect the morals and civilization of the modern society, everyone should consciously abide by, keep the car clean and sanitary, so that the sick and elderly pregnancy inconvenient for people to sit is the embodiment of a moral civilization, however, good atmosphere and not been carried forward, there are still many shortcomings, our civilization needs to continue to improve, we must start from the "I".
The man fired a shot and demanded to speak to the elite police unit which shot Islamist gunman Mohamed Merah Discount Mac Cosmetics Concealer Online Sale. Merah, who claimed to have al-Qaeda training, killed seven people in Toulouse in March before he was shot dead by police. The director of the bank cheap mac losse powder spf25 pa++ sale for Valentine Day, a branch of CIC, is said to be among the hostages. The regional newspaper Ouest-France says the area around the bank has been sealed off by the security forces. "We do not know if his claim about al-Qaeda Cheapest Mac Makeup Superslick Liquid Eyeliner is serious or a fantasy," a police union source told Ouest-France. The BBC's Christian Fraser, in Paris, says the bank is 100 metres (330ft) from Merah's flat. A police official told the Associated Press no injuries had been reported so far. Mohamed Merah, a Frenchman of Algerian descent, killed seven people in three separate attacks. His victims included three children and a teacher at a Jewish school, and three soldiers. He was shot dead by a police sniper on 22 March after commandos stormed his flat. In the wake of the shootings, the French authorities set up an investigation into whether Merah had accomplices and into possible Islamist indoctrination practices in prisons buy ray ban sunglasses for men best rayban 3211 online $39 now. Merah filmed his attacks, footage which was later recovered.
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Sleep apnea may prove to be a treatable cause of high blood pressure, according to research released today that suggests wearing a special breathing mask at discount louis vuitton shoes women night may protect apnea patients from the hypertension. Most people think of obstructive sleep apnea as a snoring disorder. Although many sufferers snore, apnea is characterized by short episodes in which the patient's upper airway narrows or closes, reducing the flow of oxygen to the body and brain. Those episodes, which can number hundreds in a night, not only disrupt nighttime sleep but may reduce daytime alertness and over time stress the body. For the past 15 to 20 years, doctors have thought that these episodes send blood pressure upward and put patients at risk of heart attack and stroke. Doctors most often treat sleep apnea by having their patients use devices that employ a technique called continuous positive airway pressure, or CPAP, which delivers mild air pressure through a nasal mask, to keep their airways open throughout sleep. Two studies released today in JAMA suggest that CPAP may reduce the risk of hypertension among apnea patients. Dr. Ferran Barbe and his colleagues at the Institut de Biomedia Recerca in Lleida, Spain, studied the effects of CPAP treatment on hypertension and risk of heart attack and stroke among 723 apnea sufferers who didn't have daytime sleepiness. They divided the patients into two groups, one that wore CPAP masks while sleeping and an observation-only group. In the course of more than two years, patients who used CPAP machines at least 4 hours a night did better, but the study didn't show a statistically significant reduction in cardiovascular problems. However, a related study in the same issue found a stronger benefit. Dr. Jose M. Marin, a respiratory specialist, led an observational study that followed 1,889 patients without hypertension who underwent evaluations for abnormal nighttime breathing at a sleep center in Zaragoza, Spain. They subsequently came in for annual blood pressure checks. With more than 12 years of follow-up, Marin's study suggested that apnea patients who used a CPAP didn't develop hypertension as much as patients with untreated OSA, those who refused treatment or those who don't wear a CPAP as prescribed. The greater the adherence to prescribed nightly CPAP use, the more protective the treatment. Dr. Virend Somers, a sleep apnea and heart disease louis vuitton man suit researcher at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., cautioned that the results of the two studies are suggestive "but not definitive that CPAP is protective of the cardiovascular system." He said the conclusion that better adherence to CPAP use is protective also "has to be taken with a pinch of salt – because the fact that someone uses CPAP more frequently and more conscientiously may mean they do other things, maybe take their medicines or do other things we don't measure that will improve their cardiovascular risk," said Somers, a professor of cardiovascular diseases. Barbe's finding that those patients who adhered to therapy had a decreased incidence of hypertension" is in my opinion quite powerful and supports the relationship found in the Marin study," said Dr. James Rowley, medical director of the Sleep Disorders Center at the Detroit Receiving Hospital in Detroit and faculty member at Wayne State University. "The Marin study in particular was a more 'real-world' study and had a longer follow-up period so is in my opinion strongly supports the statement that OSA is associated with increased risk of hypertension." The two studies provide more evidence for the benefits of CPAP therapy in reducing hypertension and its potential in preventing it among people with obstructive sleep apnea, Drs. Vishesh Kapur and Edward Weaver, both of the University of Washington in Seattle, wrote in an accompanying editorial. "Treatment may not only reduce blood pressure (although modestly on average), but if confirmed by future studies, also may prevent hypertension in at-risk patients. Thus, OSA deserves attention in patients with or at risk of developing hypertension as a potentially treatable cause of hypertension as well as other clinically important outcomes." However, they said additional clinical trials were needed to determine the amount of CPAP therapy necessary to achieve a beneficial effect, and to evaluate other sleep apnea treatments. Because so many apnea patients complain that they cannot tolerate wearing a mask throughout the night, Somers said that industry is "trying to develop new ways of delivering positive airway pressure that are more tolerable." He said the idea is for the machines to deliver constant air flow throughout the night, increasing the pressure when it's needed. That way, the treatment "will be primarily instituted" when breathing is blocked, "and when you're breathing quietly and happily, you don't need it." The sleep apnea pipeline includes new technology being developed to address some of the neurologic issues that underlie disrupted breathing to reduce apnea episodes. One approach now being tested involves stimulating nerves that control how the body keeps the airways open, Somers said. Rowley said that for now, none of the other louis vuitton shoes 2012 new luxury cheap treatments used for OSA, including surgery, some oral appliances that reposition the jaw, CPAP masks, or even devices in the pipeline "have been studied for long-term outcomes of OSA, particularly cardiovascular disease. Most of the data is short-term and relates to subjective symptoms such as sleepiness and quality of life."
A Georgia graduate student fighting a rare flesh-eating bacterial infection she contracted after being injured in a zip-line accident nearly three weeks ago is new lv sunglasses 2012 breathing on her own without the help of a ventilator, her father said. The struggle to save 24-year-old Aimee Copeland from necrotizing fasciitis - a bacterial infection that can destroy muscles, skin and tissue - has been chronicled by her father, Andy Copeland, in a blog on the university's website. "She has been off of the ventilator for over 10 hours," Andy Copeland wrote late on Sunday. "In other words, she is breathing completely on her own! How cool is that?" Copeland, a student at West Georgia University, slashed her calf when the zip-line snapped May 1 along the Little Tallapoosa River near Carrollton, Georgia. Emergency room doctors closed the wound with 22 staples and released Copeland, but she was diagnosed with the infection after her conditioned worsened. Surgeons amputated Copeland's left leg at the hip. Last week, she mouthed, "Let's do this" when told her hands and remaining foot would have to be amputated, her father wrote on Friday. It is unclear from Andy Copeland's postings whether vest sheaps top the additional amputations had already occurred. A hospital spokeswoman has declined to comment on the woman's condition. In his Sunday night posting, Andy Copeland said he was reducing the time he spends on media interviews. "Two of my most important responsibilities are to pray for and provide financial support for my family," he wrote. "Everything else, including blog posting, organizing blood drives and conducting media interviews is secondary." Different bacteria can cause necrotizing fasciitis. Health experts say the "flesh-eating" infection is not communicable. Two cases of flesh-eating infections have been reported recently in South Carolina as well. A new mother of twins, Lana Kuykendall, 36, was admitted to Greenville Memorial Hospital on May 11, days after giving birth, with a painful spot on her leg that was ultimately diagnosed as necrotizing fasciitis. Her brother, Brian Swaffer, said Kuykendall had undergone at least seven operations, was sedated, and only opened her eyes "a little bit, at times." A former South Carolina fire chief, Glenn Pace, told a local television station he had been battling a flesh-eating bacteria since early April and had three surgeries on his foot. A 1996 report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimated there were 500 to 1,500 cases of necrotizing fasciitis annually in the United States, latest louis vuitton handbag 2012 with about 20 percent of them fatal. The National Necrotizing Fasciitis Foundation has said that estimate is probably low.
Birds can master new skills without the gradual improvements that normally occur with training. The improvement is all down to an ancient part of the brain that is present cheap louis vuitton shoes for women in all vertebrate species. Learning complex motor skills such as speech or dance movements involves imitation and trial and error. Young songbirds, for example, learn to sing by copying an adult tutor, and practising the song thousands of times until they have perfected every syllable. The underlying brain mechanisms are unknown, but one influential model1 states that structures called the basal ganglia generate a variety of movement patterns that are tried out by the motor cortex, which executes the movements. The basal ganglia then reinforce the best pattern by transmitting a rewarding dopamine signal after receiving feedback on the result of the movement from the motor cortex. But research published today in Nature2 challenges this view. Jonathan Charlesworth, a neuroscientist at the University of California, San Francisco, and his colleagues trained Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata domestica) to modify the pitch of one song syllable in response to white noise. During the training, the researchers used a drug to block the output of the bird's anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), a bundle of nerve fibres that forms a loop circuit between the basal ganglia and motor cortex. The blocking prevented the gradual improvement that would normally occur as the birds practised, so despite trying, the finches did not manage to modify their song. Instead, they continued to produce it at the original pitch. But when the researchers unblocked the AFP output after training, the birds immediately produced an expert performance at the modified pitch. Inactivating the AFP completely during the training prevented any learning from taking place at all. This indicates that activity in the AFP is essential for learning motor skills, and that the pathway can covertly learn to execute a new skill without contributing to the practice and louis vuitton bracelet without feedback from the motor cortex. The findings suggest that basal ganglia circuits monitor the variations in behaviour and then direct the motor cortex to execute the most successful ones. “Our earlier work indicated that the nervous system keeps track of fine-grained fluctuations in behavioural variation and uses them for trial-and-error learning,” says Charlesworth. “These new results suggest that the basal ganglia learn rapidly and train the motor cortex, which appears to be a repository where the learning is consolidated.” The basal ganglia probably receive detailed information about behavioural variations from the premotor cortex, which plans the movements. Because the birds' performance improved immediately when the AFP output was unblocked, the researchers deduce that activity in the basal ganglia is precisely synchronized with that in the motor system. Getting better "This study represents an important step in identifying brain mechanisms that mediate trial-and-error behavioural learning,” says Richard Mooney, a neurobiologist at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina. “It suggests that the basal ganglia can learn how to improve behaviour even when they are prevented from changing it. This stands in contrast to the popular idea that the basal ganglia must actively drive variability for trial-and-error learning to occur." The basal ganglia have been highly conserved by evolution, and serve similar functions in every vertebrate species. In humans, problems with basal ganglia function are characteristic of movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease. “We hope that our findings will help clinicians to interpret the symptoms of these disorders and help scientists to develop more effective treatments,” says Charlesworth. Charlesworth adds that he is building on the black suits for men 2012 white-noise interference method to develop ultrasound neuromodulation. This could potentially be used to alter the activity of deep brain structures such as the basal ganglia, facilitating non-invasive treatments for neurological disease and improving cognitive function.
By implanting a 96-electrode sensor the size of a baby aspirin onto the surface of their brains, researchers have enabled two quadriplegic participants to use their Burberry handbags outlet, cheap burberry bags on sale, 60% off thoughts alone to perform tasks with two types of robotic arms. The BrainGate implant -- and the resulting Jedi mind tricks -- may be sort of anxiety-producing to some. But the smile on the face of the woman who hadn't been able to serve herself coffee in 15 years put a fine point on the progress the technology is affording. "One of our participants was able to do something that, when all of us saw it for the first time, gave us all pause," lead author Dr. Leigh Hochberg, a neuroengineer and designerburberyoutlet critical care neurologist who holds appointments at the Department of Veterans Affairs, Brown University, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Harvard, said in a Brown news video. "She reached out with the robotic arm, she thought about the use of her own hand, she picked up that thermos of coffee, brought it close to her, tilted it toward herself, and sipped coffee from a straw. And that was the first time in nearly 15 years that she had picked up anything and been able to drink from it solely of her own volition." John Donoghue, the neuroscientist who pioneered the BrainGate implant a decade ago and co-authored the study that appears this week in Nature, has seen the tech advance from participants being able to perform simple cursor commands on a computer monitor to actual 3D movement and dexterity louis vuitton sunglasses commands in space. "There was a moment of true joy, true happiness," Donoghue said in the video. "It was beyond the fact that it was an accomplishment -- I think an important advance in the entire field of brain computer interfaces. It was really a moment where we helped somebody do something that they had wished to do for many years." As they reported in their study, the 58-year-old paralyzed woman known as S3 underwent 158 trials over the course of four days, and was able to touch the target within an allotted time 48.8 percent of the time using the DLR robotic arm and hand and 69.2 percent of the time using the DEKA arm and hand, whose grasp is wider. The other participant, a 66-year-old paralyzed man known as T2, had nearly identical results. Donoghue was particularly encouraged to see that these results held even though one of the participants had the BrainGate array implanted five years ago. "This louis vuitton hoodie men work is a critical step toward realizing the long-term goal of creating a neurotechnology that will restore movement, control, and independence to people with paralysis or limb loss," he said.
In six starts against any team not named the San Diego Padres, left-hander Chris Capuano has pitched like an ace. Against the lowly Padres, he’s pitched like a Lv shoes for women 2012 journeyman desperate to hang on. It makes no sense, but as managers and players alike are fond of saying in these situations, that’s baseball. That was a 4-2 loss for the Dodgers and Capuano, his first of the season, on Wednesday in San Diego. The injury-riddled Dodgers sent out a lineup that wouldn’t have been allowed in a spring training game -- it had only one regular, Andre Ethier. It wasn’t a lineup designed to score much, and it did not surprise, sending both runs across in the first and then going so quietly it was hard to remember a single at-bat. Capuano, meanwhile, was not his normal, sharp self. Anyway, the normal, sharp guy the rest of the league knows. Against every other team this season, Capuano is 5-0 with a 1.38 earned-run average. In two starts against the Padres, he’s 0-1 with a 6.55 ERA. Things at least started promisingly enough for Capuano when the Dodgers scored twice in the first. Tony Gwynn Jr., starting in center for the injured Matt Kemp, singled and scored on a double by Elian Hererra, who was making his first major league start. Herrera scored on an Ethier sacrifice fly, and the Dodgers had an early 2-0 lead. Capuano, however, immediately ran into trouble in the form of Chase Headley, who hit a solo home run in the bottom of the first. It remained a 2-1 lead for the Dodgers until the sixth when Headley -- in another nine-pitch at-bat -- doubled in two more to give the Padres a 3-2 lead. The Padres added one more in the seventh after loading the bases on an Orlando Hudson single, a Capuano error on a sacrifice bunt and a walk. That brought a call to reliever Javy Guerra, who threw four consecutive balls to Cameron Maybin to force in the final run. In his 6 1/3 innings, Capuano (5-1) allowed four runs on six hits and three walks, throwing 94 pitches. After their first-inning outburst, however, the Dodgers' meager lineup could do nothing with Clayton Richard, whose situation is the exact opposite of Capuano's. Richard had lost five consecutive decisions, his only victory this season coming against the Dodgers. He is now 6-1 lifetime against the Dodgers. On Wednesday, Richard went seven innings, holding the lv jewelry Dodgers to two runs on just four hits. He struck out six, walked one and was not deducted any points for opposing a triple-A lineup. Until Bobby Abreu singled with one out in the ninth, the Padres had set down 15 consecutive Dodgers. The Dodgers ended the day with just five hits.
Fewer people are way overdue on their credit card payments in the U.S. The credit reporting agency TransUnion says the rate of payments 90 days overdue or longer Lv shoes for women 2012 dipped in the first three months of the year to .73 percent. That's down from .78 percent for the fourth quarter of last year. Nebraska and Oregon Republicans have chosen Mitt Romney in Tuesday's presidential primaries. Oregon has 25 presidential delegates up for grabs and most if not all are going to Romney. In Nebraska, the state's 32 delegates to the Republican National Convention will be determined at the state convention on July 14. OMAHA, Neb. (AP) — Nebraska state Sen. Deb Fischer has won the Republican nomination for U.S. Senate, setting the stage for a high-stakes November election against former Democratic Sen. Bob Kerrey. The 53-year-old Fischer overcame low name familiarity and being outspent by two competitors to win the nomination in Tuesday's election. She was backed by 2008 GOP vice presidential nominee Sarah Palin and former presidential candidate Herman Cain. The race has drawn national attention because a GOP win would push Republicans closer to a Senate majority. Nebraska is a solidly Republican state, but Democrats think they have a shot of winning with Kerrey, a former senator, governor and presidential candidate. Kerrey easily won the Democratic nomination. The general election winner will replace Democratic Sen. Ben Nelson, who isn't seeking a third term. SAN ANSELMO, Calif. (AP) — Representatives of dozens of West Coast Presbyterian churches are defying their denomination's highest court by refusing to censure a retired minister who married same-sex couples in 2008. The Presbyterian Church's highest court found the Rev. Jane Spahr of San Francisco guilty of misconduct in 2010 for officiating at same-sex weddings when they were legal in California. The court previously ruled that clergy could only bless same-sex unions, but not perform weddings. Spahr appealed the decision but lost the battle before the church's General Assembly Permanent Judicial Commission in February. On Tuesday, representatives of Northern California Presbyterian churches voted overwhelmingly to ignore the commission and oppose Spahr's official censure. The Marin Independent Journal reports Spahr's supporters celebrated with her at the San Francisco Theological Seminary in San Anselmo. MIAMI (AP) — Court records show George Zimmerman had a pair of black eyes, a nose fracture and two cuts to the back of his head after the fatal shooting of 17-year-old Trayvon Martin. ABC News reports the medical records were part of evidence released Tuesday that prosecutors have in the second-degree murder case against Zimmerman. He has entered a plea louis vuitton t-shirts 2012 of not guilty and claims self-defense in the Feb. 26 shooting. A message left Tuesday evening with Zimmerman's attorney was not immediately returned. Zimmerman was treated Feb. 27 at Altamonte Family Practice. A phone call made Tuesday evening to the practice rang unanswered. Some of the injuries were previously reported by The Associated Press based on video of Zimmerman at a jail sally port. GREENSBORO, N.C. (AP) — Attorneys for John Edwards are indicating their case is winding down, but they are not yet saying whether they will call the former presidential candidate or his mistress to testify. Defense attorneys said they would make a decision later Tuesday on whether to call Edwards and Rielle Hunter. It was not clear when they would make that decision public. Testimony ended Tuesday for the day with the trial still focusing on financial records. Edwards is accused of masterminding a plan to use about $1 million from two wealthy donors to hide his pregnant mistress as he ran for the White House in 2008. Edwards has pleaded not guilty to six counts of campaign finance violations. He faces up to 30 years in prison if convicted. CROWN KING, Ariz. (AP) — High winds are increasing the acreage of a northern Arizona wildfire but also blowing flames away from an historic mining town. The blaze near Crown King began on private land Sunday and has burned about 2½ square miles with zero containment. Fire officials say winds estimated at 35 mph pushed the size to an estimated 1,700 acres Tuesday. The wildfire has destroyed two buildings and one trailer. Authorities believe the blaze was started by a structure fire on private property. The area remains under an evacuation order though authorities say most of the town's 350 residents have chosen to stay. Crown King is a community of mostly summer homes about 85 miles north of Phoenix. Facebook IPO could mean up to $2.1B for Calif. SACRAMENTO, Calif. (AP) — Facebook's public stock offering this week is projected to generate between $1.6 billion and $2.1 billion through mid-2013 for California's budget as shareholders cash in their shares. The nonpartisan Legislative Analyst's Office on Tuesday increased the state's revenue projection after the online social network raised the upper range of its initial stock price from $35 per share to $38. The higher state revenue projection assumes voter approval of Gov. Jerry Brown's tax-hike initiative in November. The analyst's report says Facebook is expected to drive one-fifth of the growth in California's personal income this year. CEO Mark Zuckerberg will make a significant contribution burberry handbags on sale to the state's finances. Department of Finance spokesman H.D. Palmer says California could receive $195 million when he exercises his option on 60 million shares. WASHINGTON (AP) — An influential panel is calling for an 80 percent reduction of U.S. nuclear weapons and an elimination of all nuclear armed intercontinental ballistic missiles. In a report for the advocacy group Global Zero, Gen. James Cartwright and others argue that the U.S. needs no more than 900 total nuclear weapons for its security in a post-Cold War world. The report comes at a time that the president is weighing a range of sharp nuclear reductions. The Obama administration is reportedly considering at least three options for lower total numbers of deployed strategic nuclear weapons: reducing the number to 1,000 to 1,100; 700 to 800; or 300 to 400. The Global Zero report calls for such weapons to be reduced to about 450, while maintaining an equal number of stored weapons. Homeless man's mom accepts $1M settlement in death FULLERTON, Calif. (AP) — The mother of a mentally ill homeless man who died after a violent confrontation with Southern California police has accepted a $1 million settlement with the city of Fullerton. The Orange County Register says the settlement was announced at Tuesday's City Council meeting. It was approved on a 5-0 vote. In exchange, Cathy Thomas agreed to not pursue any further claims or lawsuits seeking damages for the death of her 37-year-old son, Kelly. The deal does not involve her ex-husband, Ron Thomas. A judge earlier this month ordered two officers to stand trial on criminal charges in the case. Their next court appearance is scheduled for May 22. The incident last July also prompted an effort to remove three Fullerton councilmembers. They face a recall on next month's ballot. JAKARTA, Indonesia (AP) — An Indonesian official says special forces have found the voice-and-data recorder of a Russian passenger jet that slammed into a jagged, mist-shrouded cliff on a dormant volcano. The "black box" could help explain the cause of the deadly crash. Search and Rescue agency spokesman Gagah Prakoso said Wednesday that it was found near the tail of the shattered wreck at the bottom of a 1,500-foot (500-meter) ravine. The device was delivered to investigators burberry handbags sale late Tuesday. The Sukhoi Superjet 100 — Russia's first passenger jet model since the fall of the Soviet Union two decades ago — was being demonstrated for potential buyers when it roared into Mount Salak at 800 kph (480 mph) on May 9. All 45 people on board were killed.
President Barack Obama said on Monday the huge trading loss at JPMorgan Chase & Co illustrated the need for Wall Street reform and warned that the same kind of error louis vuitton sunglasses at a less stable bank may have required government intervention. "JPMorgan is one of the best managed banks there is. Jamie Dimon, the head of it, is one of the smartest bankers we got and they still lost $2 billion and counting," Obama said on ABC's "The View," according to a transcript released by the network. "We don't know all the details. It's going to be investigated, but this is why we passed Wall Street reform," Obama said. The program was taped on Monday in New York and will air on Tuesday. Wall Street reform was one of Obama's signature discount louis vuitton handbags sale domestic policy achievements, but he has faced opposition in trying to implement and enforce it. "The whole point was, even if you're smart, you can make mistakes and since these banks are insured, backed up by taxpayers, we don't want you taking risks where eventually we might end up having to bail you out again, because we've done that, been there, didn't like it," Obama said, according to the transcript. "This is the best, or one of the best managed banks. You could have a bank that isn't as strong, isn't as profitable making those same bets and we (the government) might burberry handbags have had to step in, and that's exactly why Wall Street reform's so important." Obama, a Democrat, said his support for greater financial oversight differentiated him from Mitt Romney, the presumed Republican presidential nominee. "We've got real differences here, because Governor Romney, members -- some of the Republican members of Congress and the financial industry have been arguing that this is unnecessary, that this is impeding capital formation," Obama said. "We want a successful financial industry. That's burberry sunglasses 2012 always been one of the hallmarks of America. But what makes us the best financial industry is transparency, accountability, rules so that small investors feel like if they put their money into Wall Street, it's not going to suddenly just disappear."
Visiting Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk on Sunday said he was proud to find another Wilno, settled by Canada's first Polish immigrants, on pine-covered hills east of cheap louis vuitton sunglasses Ottawa. Locals are largely descended from immigrants from the Kaszuby region of northern Poland from which the prime minister himself hails. They gave him a warm welcome at St. Stanislas Church. But it sharply contrasted with the reception he was given by demonstrators who came in from Toronto and Ottawa to protest what they see as Warsaw's siding with Moscow on dropping the investigation of the air disaster in Russia in which Polish president Lech Kaczynski and many others were killed. "It is a Russian-Polish conspiracy," louis vuitton earrings insisted Witold Szalankiewicz, a Pole who has been living in Ottawa for about two decades. Nationalists accuse Russian authorities and Tusk's liberal government of being responsible for the crash, going as far as suggesting an assassination to explain the accident of April 10, 2010. In a report published last August, Polish investigators said that the blame for the accident that killed Kaczynski and 95 others lay largely on the Polish side. The government at the same time announced a wave of burberry handbags outlet dismissals among army officials responsible for training in the Polish airforce. The Tupolev 154 plane carrying Kaczynski, his wife and scores of Poland's leaders crashed during an attempt to land at the fog-veiled Smolensk airport in western Russia. The Kaczynski-led delegation had been on its way to Katyn to commemorate the 70th anniversary of a massacre of thousands of Polish officers by the Soviet secret police during World War II. Tusk was supposed to have visited Canada in April 2010, but he was forced to cancel his plans at the last minute when Kaczynski and several Polish officials perished in an air crash in Smolensk. Poland is one of Canada's biggest trading partners in central and eastern Europe, with bilateral imports and exports totaling $1.7 billion. Canada is also home to burberry belts on sale nearly one million citizens of Polish origin. Besides Ottawa, Tusk will be visiting the Quadra copper mine in Sudbury, northern Ontario, acquired by the Polish mining group KGHM in March for $2.9 billion.
President Barack Obama's declaration of a personal acceptance of same-sex marriage made for a historic moment, even if its short-term impact remains to be seen. The statement was no surprise, coming on the heels cheap louis vuitton sunglasses of Vice President Joseph Biden's kindred remarks and presaged by the administration's abolishment of "Don't ask, don't tell" for the military and its decision not to defend the Defense of Marriage Act. In terms of political strategy, the president's stand may not be all that audacious. Roughly half of Americans are telling pollsters they are OK with same-sex marriage, and younger voters lean heavily in favor. For the most part, individuals, groups and states that strongly oppose women louis vuitton shoes fashion best online discount purple gay marriage already tend to be beyond Obama's reach in the November election. Heated as the issue can be, it ranks far down the list of concerns driving the electorate in a nation beset with high unemployment, mountainous government debt, a crisis in health-care financing and two wars. And the president himself is not pushing specific legislation on marriage, instead leaving the matter to the states. The states are a mixed bag. Six of them, plus the District of Columbia, have legalized same-sex marriage, while nearly all the rest explicitly ban it. Just Tuesday in North Carolina, where the Democratic Party will nominate Obama for re-election this summer, voters outlawed both burberry handbags outlet same-sex marriage and civil unions. The civil unions ban also is written into a proposed amendment to the Indiana Constitution that will go to the voters in 2014 if approved by the 2013 General Assembly. The referendum would be a divisive and expensive battle over a contract that already is forbidden by state law. Clearly, states will contend with the definition of marriage for years to come unless they're trumped by a landmark U.S. Supreme Court ruling. The president's proclamation has far less to do with legislation and lawsuits than with attitudes. While it understandably offends many Americans and draws a collective shrug from many others, it sends a profound message to certain citizens who, despite cheap burberry bag brown fashion on sale 2012 growing acceptance, remain marginalized. The echoes from that validation will resound far beyond capitols and courthouses.
Reports here provided what may be the last public update on DSM-5, the next edition of American psychiatry's diagnostic guide, before it is formally released louis vuitton sunglasses in May 2013. Many changes have been made since the first draft of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders was put out for public comment in early 2010, according to workgroup leaders speaking at several heavily attended symposia at the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) annual meeting. The current version, DSM-IV, was released in 1994. The update effort has been led by DSM-5 task force chairman David Kupfer, MD, of the University of Pittsburgh, and APA research director Darrel Regier, MD, MPH. The actual work of rewriting the manual fell to 13 workgroups, which tackled disorders in 20 categories. The final drafts are to be completed by August, then they must be approved by a scientific review committee and the task force leadership, and finally by the APA's governing bodies. Kupfer said the final version has to be completed by December, when it's set to go to the printer. Its formal release is planned for the APA's annual meeting next May in San Francisco. Here's a brief overview of the changes you can expect. To a great but not complete extent, the DSM-5 workgroups complied with those instructions. Every one of the dozens of disorder categories has been reorganized and/or rewritten to bring them into line with research conducted over the past 20 years. Often, the groups found no basis for classifications and diagnoses contained in DSM-IV. Here are highlights of what is set to be dumped in DSM-5: Axes. DSM-IV's main organizational scheme was to divide disorders, contributing factors, and global functional assessments into 5 axes -- notably with Axis I containing clinical, substance-related, and learning disorders and Axis II comprising personality and certain other disability-based disorders. The DSM-5 leadership determined early on that there was no scientific basis for this distinction, and so disorders in the new edition will be presented as a simple list of 20 chapters for disorder families. NOS diagnoses. Most disorder families in DSM-IV included an NOS diagnosis that served as a catchall for patients who appeared to have some kind of disorder but who didn't fit into the established categories. In practice, however, some of these became extremely discount louis vuitton handbags sale popular. The head of the eating disorders workgroup, for example, cited data indicating that more than half of all patients diagnosed with an eating disorder were coded for "ED-NOS." Also, some disorders that were now well recognized and characterized were included in NOS categories, such as restless legs disorder. In DSM-5, NOS categories are either gone entirely or replaced with NEC for "not elsewhere classified." NEC categories will include a list of "specifiers," each with a specific diagnostic code, that will convey clinical information. For example, Depressive Disorder NEC comes with 5 specifiers such as "short duration" that indicate the patient's clinical condition and why it doesn't meet criteria for one of the main depression syndromes. Bereavement exclusion in major depression. One of the most controversial proposals in DSM-5 does away with the restriction that diagnosis of major depression cannot be given to patients reporting severe grief from the death of a loved one if the death occurred within the preceding two months. As MedPage Today previously reported, the depression workgroup believes that there is no scientific justification to disqualify patients from diagnosis and treatment if they otherwise meet criteria for major depression. But in a bow to critics, they have proposed to include a caveat in the checklist criteria for major depression noting that certain symptoms appear in normal grief but that others may warrant attention -- as did DSM-IV though in a different way. Catatonia as a psychotic diagnosis. The group has reworked the diagnostic criteria for catatonia and removed it as a subtype of schizophrenia. Instead, catatonia is now a specifier in schizophrenia and several other psychiatric diagnoses. The DSM-IV diagnosis of catatonia related to a general medical condition will be retained, and DSM-5 will also create a new "Catatonia NEC" diagnosis for patients showing catatonia of uncertain origin or associated with neurodevelopmental conditions such as autism. Gender identity disorder. Individuals who believe their biological gender doesn't match their gender identification will no longer be labeled with a disorder. Instead, if they seek psychiatric treatment, they can be labeled with "gender dysphoria." The workgroup responsible for dealing with the hot-button issue considered a variety of other approaches, addressed later in this article. Ultimately they settled on a formal diagnosis -- potentially qualifying a patient for insurance-paid treatment if they want it -- but with a less pejorative name than "disorder." Substance abuse. DSM-IV created separate diagnoses for "abuse" and "dependence" in people having problems with mind-altering substances such as marijuana and narcotics. The DSM-5 workgroup in this area agreed that the vast amount of research conducted in recent decades pointed to substance-related problems as occurring on a continuum, such that the abuse-dependence distinction was purely arbitrary. Hence, DSM-5 will instead feature "substance use disorders" as the diagnosis for people with such problems. Also out are physical tolerance and withdrawal symptoms as criteria for a disorder diagnosis. O'Brien noted that these reflect the body's adaptation to chemicals and are not necessary to a diagnosis. In a commentary delivered to APA burberry handbags meeting attendees, Norman Sartorius, MD, of the World Health Organization, remarked on "the irresistible tendency to introduce new names" when revising diagnostic criteria. And indeed, the DSM-5 workgroups were unable to resist it. But Sartorius also noted that new names can be beneficial -- as long as they are accompanied by preparation and education. In addition to new names, some entirely new disorders and methods of diagnosing them are slated to appear in DSM-5. Dimensions. Perhaps the most important conceptual innovation in DSM-5 is its use of dimensional assessments in most disorder categories. These are indicators of severity for certain symptoms. They may be common "cross-cutting" features that appear in conjunction with many disorders, such as suicide risk and anxiety. Or they may be specific to a particular disorder, such as the frequency of flashbacks in PTSD. Biomarkers. For the first time, results of objective testing will be part of the formal diagnostic criteria in psychiatry. Many sleep-wake disorders in DSM-5 will require polysomnography for a diagnosis. Also, narcolepsy is set to become narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency, with the latter condition diagnosed on the basis of hypocretin measurements in cerebrospinal fluid. Functional impairments. Despite the leadership's wish to eliminate functional impairments and patient distress as necessary requirements for diagnoses, some of the DSM-5 workgroups found that they couldn't get rid of them. For example, an autism diagnosis will still require "symptoms [that] together limit and impair everyday functioning." Similarly, proposed criteria for PTSD include "the disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning." Regier acknowledged to MedPage Today that impairments are part and parcel of some disorders, particularly those defined by neuropsychiatric deficits. But for many categories -- especially the personality disorders -- functional impairments were transferred from the checklist criteria into the dimensional assessments. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder. This is the controversial new designation for children showing persistent foul temper punctuated by bursts of rage. When first proposed, it was widely derided as an attempt to medicalize "toddler tantrums" (even though the criteria clearly stated it was for children older than 5.) But the workgroup stuck to its guns, although it did drop the name "temper dysregulation with dysphoria" that they had initially proposed. Autism Spectrum Disorder. This was another controversial move, insofar as it combined Asperger's syndrome with overt autism, as well as two other DSM-IV categories, into a single disorder. Many in the autism community have been unhappy with the proposal -- one member of the workgroup in this area quit in protest -- but the remaining members were adamant that the change was justified and that many of the criticisms were simply wrong. "Craving." A key innovation in the diagnosis of burberry silk ties substance use disorders is a requirement that the patient report or demonstrate craving for the particular substance. Workgroup chairman Charles O'Brien, MD, of the University of Pennsylvania, said this is the key symptom that separates addiction from mere heavy use.
A new forecast for the United States suggests designer burberry outlet that 42 percent adult Americans could be obese and 11 percent severely obese by the year 2030. The estimates are part of two Institute of Medicine (IOM) reports issued Monday and Tuesday at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Weight of the Nation conference in Washington. The scientists who conducted the research say a strategy requiring action across all levels of society is needed to reverse the problem of obesity. IOM figures indicate that 34 percent of adults in the U.S. currently are obese, and six percent are severely obese. Severe obesity generally is defined Burberry handbags outlet, cheap burberry bags on sale, 60% off as being about 45 kilograms overweight. One IOM study concludes the source of America’s overweight epidemic is an environment that promotes obesity, rather than a lack of individual willpower. The co-authors made a long list of recommendations, including focusing heavily on schools where children spend most of their days, cutting farm subsidies that prohibit U.S. farmers from planting fruits and vegetables, and taxing sugar-sweetened beverages such as carbonated soda. The IOM report also urges that healthy food and drink choices be more widely available to allow Americans to make better choices, not only at restaurants, but while louis vuitton sunglasses at school, shopping or at entertainment and sports venues. A "monster sunspot" more than 60,000 miles wide could send some powerful solar flares toward Earth on Wednesday, NASA says. The sunspot -- actually a group of four spots, each larger than Earth, and smaller spots -- emerged over the weekend and was spotted by the orbiting Solar Dynamics Observatory and amateur astronomers, Spaceweather.com reported (via Space.com). It tossed off a moderately strong M-class flare today, and is expected to follow up with even stronger flares, possibly even X class. Sunspot AR 1476 is so big that a photographer in the Philippines captured it at sunset, without a solar telescope. But Spaceweather offers potential sungazers this crucial warning: Even when the sun is dimmed by clouds and haze, louis vuitton set looking into the glare can damage your eyes. Looking through unfiltered optics is even worse. If you chose to photograph the low sun, use the camera's LCD screen for viewfinding. Sunspots don't excite you? How about a pair of coronal mass ejections, or a dark, coronal hole that has opened in the sun's atmosphere and is hurling solar winds toward us? Good chance of strong geomagnetic activity, including auroras. Want to know the space weather now? NOAA has it. The latest sun show comes three weeks after the Louis vuitton shoes discount for women sale outlet spectacular eruption captured by the solar orbiter.